Brandeis University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences and Graduate School of International Economics and Finance

1994-                 Associate Professor (1994-99) and then Professor of Economics.  Teaching industrial organization, environmental economics and regulatory economics.  Current research examines the use of patent citation data to trace knowledge flows; evaluation of public science and technology programs; and the role of energy prices and public policy in energy-related technological change.


2000-                 Economics Department Chair

2001                  Chair, University Intellectual Property Policy Committee

2001                  Member, University Advisory Council


National Bureau of Economic Research

1999-                 Co-organizer, Innovation Policy and the Economy Group.  IPE brings together academics and public policy professionals to discuss research results that bear on major issues of public policy relating to innovation and its effects on the economy.  Activities include research meetings and an annual volume of papers published by MIT Press.


1994-99             Project Coordinator, NBER Research Project on Industrial Technology and Productivity.  This project encourages economists who study productivity issues to include direct observation of plants and interviews with business people as part of their research methodology.


Harvard University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

1989-94             Associate Professor of Economics. Taught graduate and undergraduate courses in Applied Microeconomics, Industrial Organization, Economics of Innovation, and Government Regulation and Antitrust Policy.  (On leave, academic year 1990-91; visiting the Kennedy School of Government, 1992-94)


1985-89             Assistant Professor of Economics.


President's Council of Economic Advisers

1990-91             Senior Staff Economist.



1980-85             Ph.D. in Economics, Harvard University.  Thesis:  "Quantifying the Effects of  Technological Opportunity and Research Spillovers in Industrial Innovation."


1976-78             S.M. in Technology and Policy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  Thesis:  "Regulating Chemicals:  Product and Process Technology as a Determinant of the Compliance Response."


1973-76             S.B. in Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.



            Introductory Economics (undergraduate)

            Microeconomic Theory (Ph.D.)

            Law and Economics (undergraduate)

            Environmental and Natural Resource Economics (undergraduate)

            Government Regulation and Antitrust Policy (undergraduate and Ph.D.)

            R&D, Innovation and Productivity Growth (undergraduate)

            Industrial Organization (Ph.D. and undergraduate)

            Applied Welfare Economics (John F. Kennedy School of Government)


            Foundation for American Communications, economics education for journalists, “The Role of Government in the Economy” (1996)



“Patent Citations and International Knowledge Flow: The Cases of Korea and Taiwan” (with A. Hu), NBER Working Paper No. W8528, October 2001


“The NBER Patent Citation Data File: Lessons, Insights and Methodological Tools” (with B. Hall and M. Trajtenberg), NBER Working Paper No. W8498 October 2001


“Market Value and Patent Citations:  A First Look” (with B. Hall and M. Trajtenberg), NBER Working Paper No. 7741, June 2000, revised June 2001


“The Meaning of Patent Citations:  Report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patentees” (with M. Trajtenberg and M. Fogarty), NBER Working Paper No. 7631, April 2000



Patents, Citations and Innovations:  A Window on the Knowledge Economy (with M. Trajtenberg), M.I.T. Press, forthcoming 2002


Innovation Policy and the Economy, (edited with J. Lerner and S. Stern), M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Volume 1 (2001) and Volume 2 (2001)


“Building Programme Evaluation into the Design of Public Research-Support Programmes,” Oxford Review of Economic Policy (forthcoming)


“Environmental Policy and Technological Change” (with R. Newell and R. Stavins), Environmental and Resource Economics (forthcoming)


“Technological Change and the Environment” (with R. Newell and R. Stavins), in Karl-Göran Mäler and Jeffrey Vincent, eds, Handbook of Environmental Economics, North-Holland, forthcoming


“Reinventing Public R&D:  Patent Policy and the Commercialization of National Laboratory Technologies” (with Josh Lerner), Rand Journal of Economics, Spring 2001


“Knowledge Spillovers and Patent Citations:  Evidence from a Survey of Inventors” (with Manuel Trajtenberg and Michael Fogarty), American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 2000


“The U.S. Patent System in Transition: Policy Innovation and the Innovation Process,” Research Policy, 2000


“The Induced Innovation Hypothesis and Energy-Saving Technological Change” (with R. Newell and R. Stavins), Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1999


“International Knowledge Flows:  Evidence from Patent Citations” (with M. Trajtenberg), Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1999


"Evidence from Patents and Patent Citations on the Impact of NASA and Other Federal Labs on Commercial Innovation” (with B. Banks and M. Fogarty), Journal of Industrial Economics, June 1998


“Universities as a Source of Commercial Technology:  A Detailed Analysis of University Patenting, 1965-1988” (with R. Henderson and M. Trajtenberg), Review of Economics and Statistics, February 1998; also published in a slightly different form as “University Patenting Amid Changing Incentives for Commercialization” in G.B. Navaretti, P. Dasgtupta, K.-G. M¬ler and D. Siniscalco, eds., Creation and Transfer of Knowledge, Springer, 1998


 “Environmental Regulation and Innovation:  A Panel Data Study” (with K. Palmer), Review of Economics and Statistics, November 1997


“University Versus Corporate Patents:  A Window on the Basicness of Invention” (with M. Trajtenberg and R. Henderson), Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1997


“Bounding the Effects of R&D:  An Investigation Using Linked Establishment and Firm Data” (with J. Adams), Rand Journal of Economics, Winter 1996


“Flows of Knowledge from Universities and Federal Labs:  Modeling the Flow of Patent Citations over Time and Across Institutional and Geographic Boundaries” (with M. Trajtenberg), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93: 12671-12677, November 1996


"The Emerging Coexistence of Competition and Regulation in Natural Gas Transportation" (with S. Makowka), Hume Papers on Public Policy, 1995


"Dynamic Incentives of Environmental Regulations:  The Effects of Alternative Policy Instruments on Technology Diffusion" (with R. Stavins), Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1995


"Environmental Regulation and the Competitiveness of U.S. Manufacturing:  What Does the Evidence Tell Us?" (with S. Peterson, P. Portney and R. Stavins), The Journal of Economic Literature, 1995; reprinted in Trade and the Environment: Economic, Legal and Policy Perspectives, Alan M. Rugman and John J. Kirton, eds., Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 1998


The Energy-Efficiency Gap" (with R. Stavins), Energy Policy, 1994


"The Energy Paradox and the Diffusion of Conservation Technology" (with R. Stavins), Resource and Energy Economics, 1994


"Energy-Efficiency Investments and Public Policy" (with R. Stavins), The Energy Journal, 1994


"Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations" (with M. Trajtenberg and R. Henderson), Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1993


"How High are the Giants' Shoulders:  An Empirical Assessment of Knowledge Spillovers and Creative Destruction in a Model of Economic Growth" (with R. Caballero), in O. Blanchard and S. Fischer, eds.,  National Bureau of Economic Research Macroeconomics Annual, Vol. 8, MIT Press, 1993; reprinted in Gene M. Grossman, ed., Economic Growth:  Theory and Evidence, Cheltenham, UK:  Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 1996


"The Effect of Liquidity on Firms' R&D Spending" (with K. Hao), Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1993


"Market Power of Local Cable Television Franchises:  Evidence from the Effects of Deregulation" (with D. Kanter), Rand Journal of Economics, 1990


"Unintended Impacts of Public Investments on Private Decisions:  The Depletion of Forested Wetlands" (with R. Stavins), American Economic Review, 1990


"Real Effects of Academic Research," American Economic Review, 1989; reprinted in The Economics of Science and Innovation, Paula E. Stephan and David B. Audretsch, eds., Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, forthcoming


"Characterizing the ‘Technological Position’ of Firms, with Application to Quantifying Technological Opportunity and Research Spillovers," Research Policy, 1989


"Demand and Supply Influences in R&D Intensity and Productivity Growth," Review of Economics and Statistics, August 1988


"Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits and Market Value," American Economic Review, 1986; reprinted in Edward N. Wolff, ed., The Economics of Productivity, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 1997; also reprinted in R. Towse and R.W. Holzhauer, eds., The Economics of Intellectual Property, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, forthcoming


“International Taxation and the Location of Inventive Activity” (with J.R. Hines, Jr.), in James R. Hines Jr. ed., International Taxation and Multinational Activity, Chicago: University of Chicago Press (2001)


“The Cigarette Industry,” in Walter Adams and James Brock, ed., The Structure of American Industry, Tenth Edition, Prentice Hall, 2000


“Energy-Efficient Technologies and Climate Change Policies:  Issues and Evidence” (with R. Newell and R. Stavins), Resources for the Future Climate Issue Brief No. 19, December 1999


“The Regional Economic Impact of Public Research Funding:  A Case Study of Massachusetts” (with Amy B. Candell), in L.M. Branscomb, F. Kodama, and R. Florida, eds., Industrializing Knowledge:  University-Industry Linkages in Japan and the United States, MIT Press, 1999


“Special Issue on Geography and Innovation:  Editors’ Introduction” (with R. Henderson), Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1999


Comment on “Inventors, Firms and the Market for Technology:  U.S. Manufacturing in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,” in Daniel Raff, Naomi Lamoreaux and Peter Temin, eds., Learning By Doing in Firms, Markets, and Nations, University of Chicago Press, 1999


Comment on “What Do Technology Shocks Do?” in Bernanke, Ben S. and Julio Rotemberg, eds., NBER Macroeconomics Annual, 1998


“The Importance of ‘Spillovers’ in the Policy Mission of the Advanced Technology Program,” Journal of Technology Transfer, Summer 1998


“Inside the Pin-Factory:  Empirical Studies Augmented by Manager Interviews:  Introduction” (with S. Borenstein and J. Farrell), Journal of Industrial Economics, June 1998


“Measurement Issues,” in Investing in Innovation, L. M. Branscomb & J. Keller, Editors, MIT Press, 1998


Review of Green, Inc. by Frances Cairncross, Journal of Economic Literature, March 1997


“Economic Analysis of Research Spillovers:  Implications for the Advanced Technology Program,” Economic Assessment Office, The Advanced Technology Program, National Institutes of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, November 1996


“Trends and Patterns in U.S. Research and Development Expenditures,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93: 12658-12663, November 1996


“Regional Localization of Technological Accumulation:  Application to the Tri-State Region,” The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1996


Comment on “Cross-Country Variations in National Economic Growth Rates” by J. Bradford Delong, in Technology and Growth, Jeffrey C. Fuhrer and Jane Sneddon Little, eds., Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Conference Series No. 40, June 1996


“Regulatory Reform and the Economics of Contract Confidentiality:  The Example of Natural Gas Pipelines” (with J. P. Kalt, S. T. Jones, and F. A. Felder), Regulation, 1996


“Should Electricity Markets Have a Capacity Requirement:  If  So, How Should  It Be Priced?”  (with F. Felder), Proceedings of the Electric Power Research Institute Conference on Competitive Electricity Pricing, March 1996.


Planning for Change, Preparing for Growth:  Implications for Massachusetts of Reductions in Federal Research Spending, prepared for the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, March 1996


"On the Microeconomics of R&D Spillovers" (with J. Adams), in Louis A. Lefebvre and Élisabeth Lefebvre,  eds., Management of Technology and Regional Development in a Global Environment, Paul Chapman Publishing, Ltd., 1995


"Incentive Regulation for Natural Gas Pipelines" (with J. Kalt), in Ellig, J. and J.P. Kalt, eds., New Horizons in Natural Gas Deregulation, 1995


Comment on "Taxes, Technology Transfer, and the R&D Activities of Multinational Firms" by James R. Hines, Jr., in Martin Feldstein, James R. Hines, Jr. and R. Glenn Hubbard, eds., The Effects of Taxation on Multinational Corporations, University of Chicago Press, 1995


The Investment Consequences of the Re-Regulation of Cable Television (with W. Emmons and J. Taylor), The Economics Resource Group, Cambridge, MA, 1994


"Insight on Oversight" (with J. Kalt), Public Utilities Fortnightly, April 15, 1994


"Prices, Regulation and Energy Conservation: An Econometric Analysis" (with R. Stavins), delivered at the Conference on Market Approaches to Environmental Regulation, Stanford University, December 1993


Comment on "R&D and Market Value in the 1980s" by Bronwyn Hall, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Microeconomics, 1993


Environmental Regulations and the Competitiveness of U.S. Industry (with S. Peterson, P. Portney and R. Stavins), U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Washington  DC, NTIS No. PB-93-193514, July 1993


"Achieving Maximum Benefit from Competitive Natural Gas and Emission Allowance Markets" (with J. Kalt), Proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners Conference on Natural Gas Use, State Regulation and Market Dynamics in the Post 636/Energy Policy Act Era,  March 1993.


"The Diffusion of Energy-Conserving Windows:  The Effect of Economic Incentives and Building Codes" (with R. Stavins), presented at the American Economic Association annual meeting, Anaheim CA, January 1993


Review of Investing in the Future, by John Irvine, et al., Journal of Economic Literature, June, 1992


Review of Productivity and U.S. Economic Growth by D. Jorgenson, et al., Business History Review, 1991


"Evaluating the Relative Effectiveness of Economic Incentives and Direct Regulation for Environmental Protection:  Impacts on the Diffusion of Technology" (with R. Stavins), CSIA Discussion Paper No. 91-1, Center for Science and International Affairs, Environment and Natural Resources Program, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, February 1991


"Economic Evaluation of Policy Options for Global Climate Change:  Some Methodological Reflections," Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, August 1990


"Universities and Regional Patterns of Commercial Innovation," REI Review, Center For Regional Economic Issues, Case-Western Reserve University, 1989


"Who Does R&D and Who Patents"  (with J. Bound, et al.), in Z. Griliches, ed., R&D, Patents and Productivity, University of Chicago Press, 1984


"Benefit-Cost Analysis and Multi-Objective Evaluation of Federal Water Projects," Harvard Environmental Law Review, 1980


"Preventing Groundwater Pollution:  Towards a Coordinated Strategy to Protect Critical Recharge Zones (with J.T.B. Tripp), Harvard Environmental Law Review, 1979



“Public Research Funding and Economic Growth,” American Chemical Society Science and the Congress series, December 2001


“Research on Research:  What We Know and Don't Know about the Payoffs to Research,” Federal Reserve Bank of New York, July 2001


“What Do We Know About the Effects of Intellectual Property Regimes,” Distinguished Speakers in Economics Series, Industry Canada, Ottawa, April 2000


“Technology Potentials and Climate Change Policy,” Roundtable on Global Climate Change Policy, Allied Social Sciences Annual Meeting, January 2000


National Science and Technology Council, “White House Summit on Innovation:  Federal Policy for the New Millennium,” November 1999


"Measuring Knowledge in the Health Sector," Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/National Science Foundation, “High-Level Forum on Measuring Knowledge in Learning Economies and Societies,” Washington DC, May 1999


"Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness: An Interpretive Update," Environmental Law Institute-Carnegie Mellon University Symposium on Environmental Regulation and Innovation, April 1999


“R&D and Innovation in a Restructured Electricity Industry,” American Association for the Advancement of Science, Annual Meeting, February, 1998


“Assessing the Economic Return to Basic Research,” National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Committee on Condensed Matter and Material Physics, September 1997


Resources for the Future Workshop:  The Economics of Carbon Policy and the Importance of Endogenous Technical Change, March 1997


National Research Council, Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy, Workshop on Research and Innovation Indicators for Public Policy, February 1997



Member, Board of Editors, Journal of Industrial Economics, 1995-present


Associate Editor, Rand Journal of Economics, 1997-present


Guest Associate Editor, Management Science Special Issue:  “Managing Knowledge in Organizations,” 2001


Member, Board of Editors, American Economic Review, 1995-2000


Lead Author, Third Assessment Report, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1998-2001


Member, National Academy of Engineering Committee on the Impact of Academic Research on Industrial Performance, 1998-2001


Co-organizer of the NBER Science and Technology Policy Research Workshop, 1995-1998


Member, Economic Impact Committee, Association of University Technology Managers, 1994-95


Contributing Author, Working Group III (socioeconomics) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1994


Member, Stanford Energy Modeling Forum, Working Group on Energy Conservation (EMF 13), 1992-94


Referee/Reviewer for American Economic Review, Journal of Applied Econometrics, Econometrica, Economic Inquiry, Economic Journal, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Journal of Economics Organization and Management, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Journal of Health Economics, Journal of Industrial Economics, Journal of Law and Economics, Journal of Political Economy, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Rand Journal of Economics, Research Policy, Review of Economics and Statistics, Science, and MIT Press.



“A Protocol for Empirical Measurement of the Impact of Public Research Funding,” National Science Foundation, 2000-2001


“The Effects of Government Policies on the Invention, Innovation, and Diffusion of Energy-Efficient Technologies,” U.S. Department of Energy, 1998-2001


"Energy-Efficiency Innovation and the Economic and Regulatory Environment:  Analyzing Endogenous and Autonomous Technological Change for Integrated Assessment Models," U.S. Department of Energy, 1995-1998


"Using Patent Citation Data to Trace Knowledge Flows," National Science Foundation, 1994-98


"The Sources and Effects of Knowledge Spillovers," National Science Foundation, 1994-97


"Getting Down to Basics:  Using University and Corporate Patents to Identify Basic Inventions and Trace Their Diffusion," National Science Foundation, 1991-92


"Evaluating the Relative Effectiveness of Economic Incentives and Direct Regulation for Environmental Protection:  Impacts on the Diffusion of Technology," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1991-93



Research Associate (1994-present) and Faculty Research Fellow (1985-1994), National Bureau of Economic Research


Alfred P. Sloan Dissertation Fellowship, Harvard, 1984-85


Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, MIT, 1976-77; Phi Beta Kappa, MIT, 1976

Other Information

Department of Economics, MS 021                                                      (781) 736-2251 (v)

Brandeis University                                                                               (781) 736-2269 (f)

Waltham MA 02454-9110