Research Conduct and Conflicts of Interest

The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works. The NBER is committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community. The NBER's greatest asset is its reputation for scholarly integrity. We expect our affiliated researchers to conduct their affairs in ways that will not compromise their reputations, nor reflect adversely on the integrity of the NBER.

One important aspect of research integrity is attention to the possibility of conflicts of interest. A financial conflict of interest occurs when an individual's private interests, and his or her professional obligations to the NBER, diverge in ways that might lead an independent observer to reasonably question whether the individuals' professional actions or decisions are influenced by considerations of personal financial gain. The existence of such situations implies neither wrong-doing nor inappropriate activity. However, their presence in the research setting can compromise, or be perceived as compromising, the integrity of research findings. For this reason, it is essential that all NBER-affiliated researchers understand how to identify such potentially divergent interests, and how their presence should be disclosed and managed.

To ensure the integrity of research carried out under its auspices, and research disseminated in the NBER working paper series and various NBER publications, the NBER has adopted the policies that are described below. The NBER's Research Financial Conflict of Interest Policy complies with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services final rule of 2011, which amends the Public Health Service (PHS) regulations on Responsibility of Applicants for Promoting Objectivity in Research for which PHS Funding is Sought (42 C.F.R. Part 50, Subpart F).

NBER Research Financial Conflict of Interest Policy
NBER Research Dissemination Disclosure Policy