NBER Papers on Productivity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Program

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2020
w27961 Scott R. Baker
Aniket Baksy
Nicholas Bloom
Steven J. Davis
Jonathan A. Rodden

Elections, Political Polarization, and Economic Uncertainty
w27954 Gilbert Cette
Jimmy Lopez
Jacques Mairesse
Giuseppe Nicoletti

Economic Adjustment during the Great Recession: The Role of Managerial Quality
w27952 Mu-Jeung Yang
Michael Christensen
Nicholas Bloom
Raffaella Sadun
Jan Rivkin

How Do CEOs Make Strategy?
w27943 Pierre Azoulay
Misty L. Heggeness
Jennifer L. Kao

Medical Research and Health Care Finance: Evidence from Academic Medical Centers
w27925 Michael Dinerstein
Rigissa Megalokonomou
Constantine Yannelis

Human Capital Depreciation
w27916 Benjamin Davies
Jason Gush
Shaun C. Hendy
Adam B. Jaffe

Research Funding and Collaboration
w27909 Daniel P. Gross
Bhaven N. Sampat

Organizing Crisis Innovation: Lessons from World War II
w27907 Shai Bernstein
Richard R. Townsend
Ting Xu

Flight to Safety: How Economic Downturns Affect Talent Flows to Startups
w27906 Ariel Pakes
A Helicopter Tour of Some Underlying Issues In Empirical Industrial Organization
w27896 Kyle Handley
J. Frank Li

Measuring the Effects of Firm Uncertainty on Economic Activity: New Evidence from One Million Documents
w27863 Benjamin F. Jones
Lawrence H. Summers

A Calculation of the Social Returns to Innovation
w27851 Tania Babina
Asaf Bernstein
Filippo Mezzanotti

Crisis Innovation
w27848 David M. Cutler
Kaushik Ghosh
Kassandra Messer
Trivellore Raghunathan
Allison B. Rosen
Susan T. Stewart

A Satellite Account for Health in the United States
w27598 Kyle W. Higham
Gaétan de Rassenfosse
Adam B. Jaffe

Patent Quality: Towards a Systematic Framework for Analysis and Measurement
w27833 Georgij Alekseev
Safaa Amer
Manasa Gopal
Theresa Kuchler
JW Schneider
Johannes Stroebel
Nils C. Wernerfelt

The Effects of COVID-19 on U.S. Small Businesses: Evidence from Owners, Managers, and Employees
w27828 Ufuk Akcigit
Sina T. Ates
Josh Lerner
Richard R. Townsend
Yulia Zhestkova

Fencing Off Silicon Valley: Cross-Border Venture Capital and Technology Spillovers
w27825 Kevin M. Kniffin
Andrew S. Hanks
Xuechao Qian
Bo Wang
Bruce A. Weinberg

Dissertators with Distantly Related Foci Face Divergent Near-Term Outcomes
w27824 Paul Gompers
Will Gornall
Steven N. Kaplan
Ilya A. Strebulaev

Venture Capitalists and COVID-19
w27806 David O. Argente
Chang-Tai Hsieh
Munseob Lee

Measuring the Cost of Living in Mexico and the US
w27803 Nancy Kong
Uwe Dulleck
Adam B. Jaffe
Shupeng Sun
Sowmya Vajjala

Linguistic Metrics for Patent Disclosure: Evidence from University Versus Corporate Patents
w27794 Greg Kaplan
Benjamin Moll
Giovanni L. Violante

The Great Lockdown and the Big Stimulus: Tracing the Pandemic Possibility Frontier for the U.S.
w27789 Jacques Mairesse
Michele Pezzoni
Fabiana Visentin

Does Gender Matter for Promotion in Science? Evidence from Physicists in France
w27787 Thomas Astebro
Serguey Braguinsky
Yuheng Ding

Declining Business Dynamism among Our Best Opportunities: The Role of the Burden of Knowledge
w27780 Joshua S. Gans
Test Sensitivity for Infection versus Infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2
w27778 Pierre Azoulay
Benjamin Jones
J. Daniel Kim
Javier Miranda

Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States
w27777 Robert K. Perrons
Adam B. Jaffe
Trinh Le

Tracing the Linkages Between Scientific Research and Energy Innovations: A Comparison of Clean and Dirty Technologies
w27769 Michael Ewens
Nadya Malenko

Board Dynamics over the Startup Life Cycle
w27760 Amitabh Chandra
Courtney Coile
Corina Mommaerts

What Can Economics Say About Alzheimer's Disease?
w27754 Roberto Fontana
Shane Greenstein

Centrino and the Restructuring of WI-FI Supply
w27751 Matthew R. Denes
Sabrina T. Howell
Filippo Mezzanotti
Xinxin Wang
Ting Xu

Investor Tax Credits and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from U.S. States
w27736 Danielle Li
Lindsey R. Raymond
Peter Bergman

Hiring as Exploration
w27735 David Hirshleifer
Joshua Plotkin

Moonshots, Investment Booms, and Selection Bias in the Transmission of Cultural Traits
w27730 Anna Maria Mayda
Francesc Ortega
Giovanni Peri
Kevin Y. Shih
Chad Sparber

Coping with H-1B Shortages: Firm Performance and Mitigation Strategies
w27723 Martin Beraja
David Y. Yang
Noam Yuchtman

Data-intensive Innovation and the State: Evidence from AI Firms in China
w27690 Shumiao Ouyang
Jiaheng Yu
Ravi Jagannathan

Life Cycle Cash Flows of Ventures
w27689 Anna Aizer
Ryan Boone
Adriana Lleras-Muney
Jonathan Vogel

Discrimination and Racial Disparities in Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from WWII
w27686 Cesare Righi
Timothy Simcoe

Patenting Inventions or Inventing Patents? Strategic Use of Continuations at the USPTO
w27684 Bradley Shapiro
Günter J. Hitsch
Anna Tuchman

Generalizable and Robust TV Advertising Effects
w27681 Carolina Corral
Xavier Giné
Aprajit Mahajan
Enrique Seira

Autonomy and Specificity in Agricultural Technology Adoption: Evidence from Mexico
w27680 Jing Cai
Shing-Yi Wang

Improving Management through Worker Evaluations: Evidence from Auto Manufacturing
w27662 Jonas Hjort
Vinayak Iyer
Golvine de Rochambeau

Informational Barriers to Market Access: Experimental Evidence from Liberian Firms
w27650 Edward L. Glaeser
Ginger Zhe Jin
Benjamin T. Leyden
Michael Luca

Learning from Deregulation: The Asymmetric Impact of Lockdown and Reopening on Risky Behavior During COVID-19
w27649 Anthony Koschmann
Yi Qian

Latent Estimation of Piracy Quality and its Effect on Revenues and Distribution: The Case of Motion Pictures
w27644 Jie Bai
Panle Jia Barwick
Shengmao Cao
Shanjun Li

Quid Pro Quo, Knowledge Spillover, and Industrial Quality Upgrading: Evidence from the Chinese Auto Industry
w27632 Joshua S. Gans
The Economic Consequences of R̂ = 1: Towards a Workable Behavioural Epidemiological Model of Pandemics
w27629 Robert P. Bartlett III
Adair Morse

Small Business Survival Capabilities and Policy Effectiveness: Evidence from Oakland
w27623 Alexander W. Bartik
Zoe B. Cullen
Edward L. Glaeser
Michael Luca
Christopher T. Stanton
Adi Sunderam

The Targeting and Impact of Paycheck Protection Program Loans to Small Businesses
w27622 Corina Boar
Virgiliu Midrigan

Efficient Redistribution
w27612 Evan DeFilippis
Stephen Michael Impink
Madison Singell
Jeffrey T. Polzer
Raffaella Sadun

Collaborating During Coronavirus: The Impact of COVID-19 on the Nature of Work
w27606 Rocco Macchiavello
Andreas Menzel
Atonu Rabbani
Christopher Woodruff

Challenges of Change: An Experiment Promoting Women to Managerial Roles in the Bangladeshi Garment Sector
w27605 Benjamin Balsmeier
Lee Fleming
Matt Marx
Seungryul Ryan Shin

Skilled Human Capital and High-Growth Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Inventor Inflows
w27591 Jesse Davis
Adair Morse
Xinxin Wang

The Leveraging of Silicon Valley
w27588 Matthew J. Higgins
Mathias J. Kronlund
Ji Min Park
Joshua Pollet

The Role of Assets In Place: Loss of Market Exclusivity and Investment
w27579 Michael D. Frakes
Melissa F. Wasserman

Investing in Ex Ante Regulation: Evidence from Pharmaceutical Patent Examination
w27563 Leila Agha
Soomi Kim
Danielle Li

Insurance Design and Pharmaceutical Innovation
w27561 Gang Liu
Barbara M. Fraumeni

A Brief Introduction to Human Capital Measures
w27538 Britta Glennon
How Do Restrictions on High-Skilled Immigration Affect Offshoring? Evidence from the H-1B Program
w27503 Réka Juhász
Mara P. Squicciarini
Nico Voigtländer

Technology Adoption and Productivity Growth: Evidence from Industrialization in France
w27492 Josh Lerner
Ramana Nanda

Venture Capital's Role in Financing Innovation: What We Know and How Much We Still Need to Learn
w27489 Joshua S. Gans
Michael Kearney
Erin L. Scott
Scott Stern

Choosing Technology: An Entrepreneurial Strategy Approach
w27477 Hanna Halaburda
Guillaume Haeringer
Joshua S. Gans
Neil Gandal

The Microeconomics of Cryptocurrencies
w27475 Hanming Fang
Long Wang
Yang Yang

Competition and Quality: Evidence from High-Speed Railways and Airlines
w27470 Alexander F. Wagner
Richard J. Zeckhauser
Alexandre Ziegler

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act: Which Firms Won? Which Lost?
w27467 Jason Abaluck
Leila Agha
David C. Chan Jr
Daniel Singer
Diana Zhu

Mastering the Art of Cookbook Medicine: Machine Learning, Randomized Trials, and Misallocation
w27466 Nancy Stokey
Technology Diffusion
w27462 Robert W. Fairlie
The Impact of COVID-19 on Small Business Owners: The First Three Months after Social-Distancing Restrictions
w27455 Diego A. Comin
Ana Danieli
Martí Mestieri

Income-driven Labor Market Polarization
w27446 Jennifer Bennett
Robert Kornfeld
Daniel Sichel
David Wasshausen

Measuring Infrastructure in BEA's National Economic Accounts
w27432 Austan Goolsbee
Chad Syverson

Fear, Lockdown, and Diversion: Comparing Drivers of Pandemic Economic Decline 2020
w27425 Robert J. Gordon
Hassan Sayed

Transatlantic Technologies: The Role of ICT in the Evolution of U.S. and European Productivity Growth
w27422 Alexander W. Bartik
Zoe B. Cullen
Edward L. Glaeser
Michael Luca
Christopher T. Stanton

What Jobs are Being Done at Home During the Covid-19 Crisis? Evidence from Firm-Level Surveys
w27421 William R. Kerr
Frédéric Robert-Nicoud

Tech Clusters
w27418 David Altig
Scott R. Baker
Jose Maria Barrero
Nicholas Bloom
Philip Bunn
Scarlet Chen
Steven J. Davis
Julia Leather
Brent H. Meyer
Emil Mihaylov
Paul Mizen
Nicholas B. Parker
Thomas Renault
Pawel Smietanka
Greg Thwaites

Economic Uncertainty Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic
w27405 Michael Luca
Oren Reshef

The Impact of Prices on Firm Reputation
w27395 C. Justin Cook
Manisha Shah

Aggregate Effects from Public Works: Evidence from India
w27379 Ajay K. Agrawal
Joshua S. Gans
Scott Stern

Enabling Entrepreneurial Choice
w27375 Daniel P. Gross
Bhaven N. Sampat

Inventing the Endless Frontier: The Effects of the World War II Research Effort on Post-war Innovation
w27362 Dylan Balla-Elliott
Zoë B. Cullen
Edward L. Glaeser
Michael Luca
Christopher T. Stanton

Business Reopening Decisions and Demand Forecasts During the COVID-19 Pandemic
w27350 Farid Farrokhi
Heitor S. Pellegrina

Global Trade and Margins of Productivity in Agriculture
w27344 Erik Brynjolfsson
John J. Horton
Adam Ozimek
Daniel Rock
Garima Sharma
Hong-Yi TuYe

COVID-19 and Remote Work: An Early Look at US Data
w27338 Chris Forman
Avi Goldfarb

Concentration and Agglomeration of IT Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Patenting
w27330 Dimitris Papanikolaou
Lawrence D.W. Schmidt

Working Remotely and the Supply-side Impact of Covid-19
w27309 Robert W. Fairlie
The Impact of Covid-19 on Small Business Owners: Evidence of Early-Stage Losses from the April 2020 Current Population Survey
w27296 Michael Ewens
Ramana Nanda
Christopher T. Stanton

The Evolution of CEO Compensation in Venture Capital Backed Startups
w27284 Derrick Choe
Alexander Oettl
Robert Seamans

What's Driving Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the Transport Sector?
w27281 David Baqaee
Emmanuel Farhi

Nonlinear Production Networks with an Application to the Covid-19 Crisis
w27206 Julian M. Alston
Philip G. Pardey

Innovation, Growth and Structural Change in American Agriculture
w27203 Bronwyn H. Hall
Patents, Innovation, and Development
w27192 Apoorv Gupta
Jacopo Ponticelli
Andrea Tesei

Information, Technology Adoption and Productivity: The Role of Mobile Phones in Agriculture
w27186 Shanglyu Deng
Hanming Fang
Qiang Fu
Zenan Wu

Confidence Management in Tournaments
w27184 Marcela Eslava
John C. Haltiwanger

The Life-cycle Growth of Plants: The Role of Productivity, Demand and Wedges
w27183 John M. Barrios
Yael V. Hochberg
Hanyi Yi

Launching with a Parachute: The Gig Economy and New Business Formation
w27181 Joshua R. Bruce
John M. de Figueiredo

Innovation in the U.S. Government
w27170 Barbara M. Fraumeni
Michael S. Christian
Jon D. Samuels

The Accumulation of Human and Market Capital in the United States: The Long View, 1948-2013
w27169 Qingnan Xie
Richard B. Freeman

The Contribution of Chinese Diaspora Researchers to Scientific Publications and China's "Great Leap Forward" in Global Science
w27154 Kevin Boudreau
Nilam Kaushik

The Gender Gap in Tech & Competitive Work Environments? Field Experimental Evidence from an Internet-of-Things Product Development Platform
w27150 Sabrina T. Howell
Josh Lerner
Ramana Nanda
Richard R. Townsend

Financial Distancing: How Venture Capital Follows the Economy Down and Curtails Innovation
w27145 David Popp
Jacquelyn Pless
Ivan Haščič
Nick Johnstone

Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Energy Sector
w27144 W. Erwin Diewert
Kevin J. Fox

Measuring Real Consumption and CPI Bias under Lockdown Conditions
w27140 David Baqaee
Emmanuel Farhi

Entry vs. Rents
w27139 David Baqaee
Emmanuel Farhi

The Darwinian Returns to Scale
w27121 Robert S. Pindyck
COVID-19 and the Welfare Effects of Reducing Contagion
w27093 David Dranove
Craig Garthwaite
Manuel I. Hermosilla

Expected Profits and The Scientific Novelty of Innovation
w27083 Brian McManus
Aviv Nevo
Zachary Nolan
Jonathan W. Williams

Steering Incentives of Platforms: Evidence from the Telecommunications Industry
w27080 Petra Moser
Economics of Research and Innovation in Agriculture
w27075 Konrad B. Burchardi
Thomas Chaney
Tarek Alexander Hassan
Lisa Tarquinio
Stephen J. Terry

Immigration, Innovation, and Growth
w27071 Ben Weidmann
David J. Deming

Team Players: How Social Skills Improve Group Performance
w27058 Scott R. Baker
Stephen Teng Sun
Constantine Yannelis

Corporate Taxes and Retail Prices
w27042 Avi Goldfarb
Catherine Tucker

Which Retail Outlets Generate the Most Physical Interactions?
w27040 Sari Pekkala Kerr
William R. Kerr

Immigration Policy Levers for US Innovation and Startups
w27015 Peter J. Klenow
Huiyu Li

Innovative Growth Accounting
w27011 Matthew S. Clancy
Paul Heisey
Yongjie Ji
GianCarlo Moschini

The Roots of Agricultural Innovation: Patent Evidence of Knowledge Spillovers
w27002 Steve Bond
Arshia Hashemi
Greg Kaplan
Piotr Zoch

Some Unpleasant Markup Arithmetic: Production Function Elasticities and their Estimation from Production Data
w26989 Alexander W. Bartik
Marianne Bertrand
Zoë B. Cullen
Edward L. Glaeser
Michael Luca
Christopher T. Stanton

How Are Small Businesses Adjusting to COVID-19? Early Evidence from a Survey
w26982 Lesley Chiou
Catherine Tucker

Social Distancing, Internet Access and Inequality
w26967 Eric Bettinger
Robert W. Fairlie
Anastasia Kapuza
Elena Kardanova
Prashant Loyalka
Andrey Zakharov

Does EdTech Substitute for Traditional Learning? Experimental Estimates of the Educational Production Function
w26964 Leonid Kogan
Dimitris Papanikolaou
Lawrence D. W. Schmidt
Jae Song

Technological Innovation and Labor Income Risk
w26960 Michael Bailey
Abhinav Gupta
Sebastian Hillenbrand
Theresa Kuchler
Robert J. Richmond
Johannes Stroebel

International Trade and Social Connectedness
w26948 Jonathan I. Dingel
Brent Neiman

How Many Jobs Can be Done at Home?
w26924 Casey C. Maue
Marshall Burke
Kyle J. Emerick

Productivity Dispersion and Persistence Among the World's Most Numerous Firms
w26893 Pierre Azoulay
Freda B. Lynn

Self-Citation, Cumulative Advantage, and Gender Inequality in Science
w26892 Pierre Azoulay
Ariel Fishman

The Rise of For-Profit Experimental Medicine
w26891 Andres Drenik
Simon Jäger
Miguel Pascuel Plotkin
Benjamin Schoefer

Paying Outsourced Labor: Direct Evidence from Linked Temp Agency-Worker-Client Data
w26889 Pierre Azoulay
Danielle Li

Scientific Grant Funding
w26886 Edward Kung
Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Housing
w26885 Michela Giorcelli
Petra Moser

Copyright and Creativity. Evidence from Italian Opera During the Napoleonic Age
w26884 Josh Lerner
Government Incentives for Entrepreneurship
w26860 Gianluca Orefice
Giovanni Peri

Immigration and Worker-Firm Matching
w26847 Richard Carson
Joshua S. Graff Zivin
Jordan Louviere
Sally Sadoff
Jeffrey G. Shrader Jr

The Risk of Caution: Evidence from an R&D Experiment
w26846 Pragya Kakani
Michael Chernew
Amitabh Chandra

Rebates in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Evidence from Medicines Sold in Retail Pharmacies in the U.S.
w26844 Peter Q. Blair
Tomas G. Castagnino
Erica L. Groshen
Papia Debroy
Byron Auguste
Shad Ahmed
Fernando Garcia Diaz
Cristian Bonavida

Searching for STARs: Work Experience as a Job Market Signal for Workers without Bachelor's Degrees
w26841 Donna K. Ginther
Misty L. Heggeness

Administrative Discretion in Scientific Funding: Evidence from a Prestigious Postdoctoral Training Program
w26830 Yueran Ma
Tiziano Ropele
David Sraer
David Thesmar

A Quantitative Analysis of Distortions in Managerial Forecasts
w26810 Isaac Ehrlich
Yun Pei

Human Capital as Engine of Growth - The Role of Knowledge Transfers in Promoting Balanced Growth Within and Across Countries
w26806 Arun G. Chandrasekhar
Melanie Morten
Alessandra Peter

Network-Based Hiring: Local Benefits; Global Costs
w26786 John C. Haltiwanger
James R. Spletzer

Between Firm Changes in Earnings Inequality: The Dominant Role of Industry Effects
w26783 John M. Barrios
Yael Hochberg
Hanyi Yi

The Cost of Convenience: Ridehailing and Traffic Fatalities
w26775 Michael Kremer
Jonathan D. Levin
Christopher M. Snyder

Advance Market Commitments: Insights from Theory and Experience
w26752 Jay Bhattacharya
Mikko Packalen

Stagnation and Scientific Incentives
w26737 Joshua Graff Zivin
Elizabeth Lyons

The Effects of Prize Structures on Innovative Performance
w26717 Sabrina T. Howell
J. David Brown

Do Cash Windfalls Affect Wages? Evidence from R&D Grants to Small Firms
w26711 Mark Bils
Peter J. Klenow
Cian Ruane

Misallocation or Mismeasurement?
w26688 Bradford L. Barham
Jeremy D. Foltz
Ana Paula Melo

Academic Engagement, Commercialization, and Scholarship: Empirical Evidence from Agricultural and Life Scientists at U.S. Land-grant Universities
w26686 Timothy J. Besley
Isabelle A. Roland
John Van Reenen

The Aggregate Consequences of Default Risk: Evidence from Firm-level Data
w26680 Peter Q. Blair
David J. Deming

Structural Increases in Skill Demand after the Great Recession
w26679 Jeffrey Clemens
Parker Rogers

Demand Shocks, Procurement Policies, and the Nature of Medical Innovation: Evidence from Wartime Prosthetic Device Patents
w26673 Susan C. Athey
Kevin A. Bryan
Joshua S. Gans

The Allocation of Decision Authority to Human and Artificial Intelligence
w26665 Serguey Braguinsky
Atsushi Ohyama
Tetsuji Okazaki
Chad Syverson

Product Innovation, Product Diversification, and Firm Growth: Evidence from Japan's Early Industrialization
w26661 Seema Jayachandran
Microentrepreneurship in Developing Countries
w26660 Jason Sandvik
Richard Saouma
Nathan Seegert
Christopher T. Stanton

Workplace Knowledge Flows
w26658 Debraj Ray ⓡ
Dilip Mookherjee

Growth, Automation and the Long Run Share of Labor
w26651 Charles I. Jones
The End of Economic Growth? Unintended Consequences of a Declining Population
w26632 Fabian Eckert
Teresa C. Fort
Peter K. Schott
Natalie J. Yang

Imputing Missing Values in the US Census Bureau's County Business Patterns
w26603 Cailin R. Slattery
Owen M. Zidar

Evaluating State and Local Business Tax Incentives
w26601 Chiara Farronato
Andrey Fradkin
Bradley Larsen
Erik Brynjolfsson

Consumer Protection in an Online World: An Analysis of Occupational Licensing
2019
w26594 Richard Hornbeck
Martin Rotemberg

Railroads, Reallocation, and the Rise of American Manufacturing
w26578 Charles R. Hulten
Leonard I. Nakamura

Expanded GDP for Welfare Measurement in the 21st Century
w26540 Haichao Fan
Joshua S. Graff Zivin
Zonglai Kou
Xueyue Liu
Huanhuan Wang

Going Green in China: Firms' Responses to Stricter Environmental Regulations
w26534 Joshua S. Gans
Neil Gandal

More (or Less) Economic Limits of the Blockchain
w26530 Zoë B. Cullen
Ricardo Perez-Truglia

The Old Boys' Club: Schmoozing and the Gender Gap
w26523 Sudheer Chava
Alexander Oettl
Manpreet Singh

Does a One-Size-Fits-All Minimum Wage Cause Financial Stress for Small Businesses?
w26521 Christian Catalini
Jorge Guzman
Scott Stern

Hidden in Plain Sight: Venture Growth with or without Venture Capital
w26519 Simon Jäger
Benjamin Schoefer
Jörg Heining

Labor in the Boardroom
w26490 Walker Hanlon
Taylor Jaworski

Spillover Effects of IP Protection in the Inter-war Aircraft Industry
w26486 Sabrina T. Howell
Filippo Mezzanotti

Financing Entrepreneurship through the Tax Code: Angel Investor Tax Credits
w26485 Joshua S. Gans
The Specialness of Zero
w26484 Joyce He
Sonia Kang
Nicola Lacetera

Leaning In or Not Leaning Out? Opt-Out Choice Framing Attenuates Gender Differences in the Decision to Compete
w26483 Enrico Moretti
Claudia Steinwender
John Van Reenen

The Intellectual Spoils of War? Defense R&D, Productivity and International Spillovers
w26481 Ran Zhuo
Bradley Huffaker
KC Claffy
Shane Greenstein

The Impact of the General Data Protection Regulation on Internet Interconnection
w26477 Paul Gaggl
Rowena Gray
Ioana Marinescu
Miguel Morin

Does Electricity Drive Structural Transformation? Evidence from the United States
w26470 Wen-Tai Hsu
Raymond G. Riezman
Ping Wang

Innovation, Growth, and Dynamic Gains from Trade
w26449 Sabrina T. Howell
Ramana Nanda

Networking Frictions in Venture Capital, and the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship
w26448 Philippe Aghion
Antonin Bergeaud
Timo Boppart
Peter J. Klenow
Huiyu Li

A Theory of Falling Growth and Rising Rents
w26417 Jared P. Hutchins
Brent Hueth
Guilherme Rosa

Quantifying Heterogeneous Returns to Genetic Selection: Evidence from Wisconsin Dairies
w26392 Stephen G. Dimmock
Jiekun Huang
Scott J. Weisbenner

Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor, Your High-Skilled Labor: H-1B Lottery Outcomes and Entrepreneurial Success
w26377 Robert W. Fairlie
Frank M. Fossen

Defining Opportunity versus Necessity Entrepreneurship: Two Components of Business Creation
w26371 Steven J. Davis
John C. Haltiwanger
Kyle Handley
Ben Lipsius
Josh Lerner
Javier Miranda

The Economic Effects of Private Equity Buyouts
w26366 Nava Ashraf
Alexia Delfino
Edward L. Glaeser

Rule of Law and Female Entrepreneurship
w26336 Zhao Chen
Xian Jiang
Zhikuo Liu
Juan Carlos Suárez Serrato
Daniel Xu

Tax Policy and Lumpy Investment Behavior: Evidence from China's VAT Reform
w26346 Abhijit Banerjee
Emily Breza
Esther Duflo
Cynthia Kinnan

Can Microfinance Unlock a Poverty Trap for Some Entrepreneurs?
w26338 Leila Agha
Dan Zeltzer

Drug Diffusion Through Peer Networks: The Influence of Industry Payments
w26331 Fernando M. Aragon Sanchez
Diego Restuccia
Juan Pablo Rud

Are Small Farms Really more Productive than Large Farms?
w26330 Thomas Philippon
On Fintech and Financial Inclusion
w26327 Javier Cravino
Andrei A. Levchenko
Marco Rojas

Population Aging and Structural Transformation
w26317 Michael Ewens
Joan Farre-Mensa

The Deregulation of the Private Equity Markets and the Decline in IPOs
w26305 Alberto Galasso
Hong Luo

Risk-Mitigating Technologies: the Case of Radiation Diagnostic Devices
w26304 Namrata Kala
The Impacts of Managerial Autonomy on Firm Outcomes
w26291 Matthias Breuer
Christian Leuz
Steven Vanhaverbeke

Mandated Financial Reporting and Corporate Innovation
w26278 Rembrand Koning
Sharique Hasan
Aaron Chatterji

Experimentation and Startup Performance: Evidence from A/B testing
w26275 Thomas Hellmann
Ilona Mostipan
Nir Vulkan

Be Careful What You Ask For: Fundraising Strategies in Equity Crowdfunding
w26274 Qianqian Du
Thomas F. Hellmann

Getting Tired of Your Friends: The Dynamics of Venture Capital Relationships
w26273 Albert Bravo-Biosca
Experimental Innovation Policy
w26270 Enrico Moretti
The Effect of High-Tech Clusters on the Productivity of Top Inventors
w26260 Charles I. Jones
Christopher Tonetti

Nonrivalry and the Economics of Data
w26248 Ravi Bansal
Mariano Max Croce
Wenxi Liao
Samuel Rosen

Uncertainty-Induced Reallocations and Growth
w26240 Yuriy Gorodnichenko
Tho Pham
Oleksandr Talavera

Conference Presentations and Academic Publishing
w26235 Michael J. Andrews
Local Effects of Land Grant Colleges on Agricultural Innovation and Output
w26225 Michael Roach
Henry Sauermann
John Skrentny

Are Foreign Stem PhDs More Entrepreneurial? Entrepreneurial Characteristics, Preferences and Employment Outcomes of Native and Foreign Science & Engineering PhD Students
w26222 Daniel Hedblom
Brent R. Hickman
John A. List

Toward an Understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility: Theory and Field Experimental Evidence
w26218 Nicholas Bloom
Philip Bunn
Scarlet Chen
Paul Mizen
Pawel Smietanka
Gregory Thwaites

The Impact of Brexit on UK Firms
w26197 Daniel W. Elfenbein
Raymond Fisman
Brian McManus

The Impact of Socioeconomic and Cultural Differences on Online Trade
w26196 Ufuk Akcigit
Emin Dinlersoz
Jeremy Greenwood
Veronika Penciakova

Synergizing Ventures
w26168 Sendhil Mullainathan
Ziad Obermeyer

A Machine Learning Approach to Low-Value Health Care: Wasted Tests, Missed Heart Attacks and Mis-Predictions
w26149 Bradley Setzler
Felix Tintelnot

The Effects of Foreign Multinationals on Workers and Firms in the United States
w26134 Brent Neiman
Joseph S. Vavra

The Rise of Niche Consumption
w26130 Anton Korinek
Integrating Ethical Values and Economic Value to Steer Progress in Artificial Intelligence
w26121 Dong Cheng
Mario J. Crucini
Hyunseung Oh
Hakan Yilmazkuday

Early 20th Century American Exceptionalism: Production, Trade and Diffusion of the Automobile
w26116 Gabriel Ehrlich
John Haltiwanger
Ron Jarmin
David Johnson
Matthew D. Shapiro

Re-engineering Key National Economic Indicators
w26115 Michael Ewens
Alexander S. Gorbenko
Arthur Korteweg

Venture Capital Contracts
w26114 John W. Anderson
Gordon W. Leslie
Frank A. Wolak

Measuring the Impact of Own and Others' Experience on Project Costs in the U.S. Wind Generation Industry
w26099 Catherine Fazio
Jorge Guzman
Scott Stern

The Impact of State-Level R&D Tax Credits on the Quantity and Quality of Entrepreneurship
w26073 Christian Catalini
Jorge Guzman
Scott Stern

Passive Versus Active Growth: Evidence from Founder Choices and Venture Capital Investment
w26069 Pierre Azoulay
Wesley H. Greenblatt
Misty L. Heggeness

Long-term Effects from Early Exposure to Research: Evidence from the NIH "Yellow Berets''
w26068 Ian W.R. Martin
Robert S. Pindyck

Welfare Costs of Catastrophes: Lost Consumption and Lost Lives
w26055 Massimo Anelli
Gaetano Basso
Giuseppe Ippedico
Giovanni Peri

Youth Drain, Entrepreneurship and Innovation
w26054 Joshua W. Deutschmann
Maya Duru
Kim Siegal
Emilia Tjernström

Can Smallholder Extension Transform African Agriculture?
w26052 Denise Hörner
Adrien Bouguen
Markus Frölich
Meike Wollni

The Effects of Decentralized and Video-based Extension on the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management - Experimental Evidence from Ethiopia
w26045 Fo Kodjo Dzinyefa Aflagah
Tanguy Bernard
Angelino Viceisza

Cheap Talk and Coordination in the Lab and in the Field: Collective Commercialization in Senegal
w26035 Girum Abebe
Marcel Fafchamps
Michael Koelle
Simon Quinn

Learning Management Through Matching: A Field Experiment Using Mechanism Design
w26013 Kevin J. Boudreau
Matt Marx

From Theory to Practice: Field Experimental Evidence on Early Exposure of Engineering Majors to Professional Work
w26010 David Byrne
Carol Corrado

Accounting for Innovation in Consumer Digital Services: IT Still Matters
w26005 Giulio Federico
Fiona Scott Morton
Carl Shapiro

Antitrust and Innovation: Welcoming and Protecting Disruption
w26001 Germán Gutiérrez
Thomas Philippon

The Failure of Free Entry
w25998 Pedro Bento
Diego Restuccia

The Role of Nonemployers in Business Dynamism and Aggregate Productivity
w25993 Sen Chai
Richard B. Freeman

Temporary Colocation and Collaborative Discovery: Who Confers at Conferences
w25991 W. Erwin Diewert
Robert C. Feenstra

Estimating the Benefits of New Products
w25983 Matias Covarrubias
Germán Gutiérrez
Thomas Philippon

From Good to Bad Concentration? U.S. Industries over the past 30 years
w25967 David Card
Stefano DellaVigna
Patricia Funk
Nagore Iriberri

Are Referees and Editors in Economics Gender Neutral?
w25963 Patrick Button
Do Tax Incentives Affect Business Location and Economic Development? Evidence from State Film Incentives
w25960 Michael Ewens
Ryan H. Peters
Sean Wang

Measuring Intangible Capital with Market Prices
w25956 David Altig
Jose Maria Barrero
Nicholas Bloom
Steven J. Davis
Brent H. Meyer
Nicholas Parker

Surveying Business Uncertainty
w25954 Thibaut Lamadon
Magne Mogstad
Bradley Setzler

Imperfect Competition, Compensating Differentials and Rent Sharing in the U.S. Labor Market
w25952 Corina Boar
Virgiliu Midrigan

Markups and Inequality
w25930 Richard K. Crump
Stefano Eusepi
Marc Giannoni
Ayşegül Şahin

A Unified Approach to Measuring u*
w25928 Nicola Bianchi
Michela Giorcelli

Scientific Education and Innovation: From Technical Diplomas to University STEM Degrees
w25923 Matthias Kehrig
Nicolas Vincent

Good Dispersion, Bad Dispersion
w25920 Guido Friebel
Matthias Heinz
Mitchell Hoffman
Nick Zubanov

What Do Employee Referral Programs Do? Measuring the Direct and Overall Effects of a Management Practice
w25917 Moshe A. Barach
Joseph M. Golden
John J. Horton

Steering in Online Markets: The Role of Platform Incentives and Credibility
w25904 Clément de Chaisemartin
Xavier D'Haultfoeuille

Two-way Fixed Effects Estimators with Heterogeneous Treatment Effects
w25893 Ashish Arora
Sharon Belenzon
Andrea Patacconi
Jungkyu Suh

The Changing Structure of American Innovation: Some Cautionary Remarks for Economic Growth
w25875 William R. Kerr
The Gift of Global Talent: Innovation Policy and the Economy
w25866 Achyuta Adhvaryu
Teresa Molina
Anant Nyshadham

Expectations, Wage Hikes, and Worker Voice: Evidence from a Field Experiment
w25865 Achyuta Adhvaryu
Namrata Kala
Anant Nyshadham

Management and Shocks to Worker Productivity
w25864 Barbara M. Fraumeni
Michael S. Christian

Accumulation of Human and Market Capital in the United States, 1975-2012: An Analysis by Gender
w25862 Nune Hovhannisyan
Wolfgang Keller

International Business Travel and Technology Sourcing
w25857 Apostolos Filippas
John J. Horton
Joseph M. Golden

Reputation Inflation
w25853 Katharina Janke
Carol Propper
Raffaella Sadun

The Impact of CEOs in the Public Sector: Evidence from the English NHS
w25852 Achyuta Adhvaryu
Anant Nyshadham
Jorge A. Tamayo

Managerial Quality and Productivity Dynamics
w25806 Dara Lee Luca
Michael Luca

Survival of the Fittest: The Impact of the Minimum Wage on Firm Exit
w25780 Tasso Adamopoulos
Diego Restuccia

Land Reform and Productivity: A Quantitative Analysis with Micro Data
w25773 Bronwyn H. Hall
Tax Policy for Innovation
w25759 Julian Kolev
Yuly Fuentes-Medel
Fiona Murray

Is Blinded Review Enough? How Gendered Outcomes Arise Even Under Anonymous Evaluation
w25757 Michael Gelman
Shachar Kariv
Matthew D. Shapiro
Dan Silverman

Rational Illiquidity and Consumption: Theory and Evidence from Income Tax Withholding and Refunds
w25756 Ufuk Akcigit
Sina T. Ates

What Happened to U.S. Business Dynamism?
w25755 Ufuk Akcigit
Sina T. Ates

Ten Facts on Declining Business Dynamism and Lessons from Endogenous Growth Theory
w25748 Matthew Backus
Why is Productivity Correlated with Competition?
w25742 Kevin A. Bryan
Yasin Ozcan
Bhaven N. Sampat

In-Text Patent Citations: A User's Guide
w25725 Charles I. Jones
Taxing Top Incomes in a World of Ideas
w25713 David S. Abrams
Ufuk Akcigit
Gokhan Oz
Jeremy G. Pearce

The Patent Troll: Benign Middleman or Stick-Up Artist?
w25695 Erik Brynjolfsson
Avinash Collis
W. Erwin Diewert
Felix Eggers
Kevin J. Fox

GDP-B: Accounting for the Value of New and Free Goods in the Digital Economy
w25688 David Baqaee
Emmanuel Farhi

A Short Note on Aggregating Productivity
w25676 Basil Halperin
Benjamin Ho
John A. List
Ian Muir

Toward an Understanding of the Economics of Apologies: Evidence from a Large-Scale Natural Field Experiment
w25659 Sharon Belenzon
Victor Manuel Bennett
Andrea Patacconi

Flexible Production and Entry: Institutional, Technological, and Organizational Determinants
w25645 Ana Aizcorbe
David M. Byrne
Daniel E. Sichel

Getting Smart About Phones: New Price Indexes and the Allocation of Spending Between Devices and Services Plans in Personal Consumption Expenditures
w25631 David Popp
Environmental Policy and Innovation: A Decade of Research
w25619 Ajay Agrawal
Joshua S. Gans
Avi Goldfarb

Artificial Intelligence: The Ambiguous Labor Market Impact of Automating Prediction
w25612 Tito Boeri
Andrea Ichino
Enrico Moretti
Johanna Posch

Wage Equalization and Regional Misallocation: Evidence from Italian and German Provinces
w25610 Paul Dolfen
Liran Einav
Peter J. Klenow
Benjamin Klopack
Jonathan D. Levin
Laurence Levin
Wayne Best

Assessing the Gains from E-Commerce
w25609 Germán Gutiérrez
Callum Jones
Thomas Philippon

Entry Costs and the Macroeconomy
w25599 Daniel Sichel
Eric von Hippel

Household Innovation, R&D, and New Measures of Intangible Capital
w25595 Wen-Jung Liang
Chao-Cheng Mai
Jacques-François Thisse
Ping Wang

On the Economics of Science Parks
w25594 Matthew E. Kahn
Pei Li

The Effect of Pollution and Heat on High Skill Public Sector Worker Productivity in China
w25585 Seth G. Benzell
Erik Brynjolfsson

Digital Abundance and Scarce Genius: Implications for Wages, Interest Rates, and Growth
w25578 Louis Kaplow
Market Power and Income Taxation
w25565 J. David Brown
John S. Earle
Mee Jung Kim
Kyung Min Lee

Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Innovation in the U.S. High-Tech Sector
w25558 Daniel E. Sichel
Productivity Measurement: Racing to Keep Up
w25550 Marcela Eslava
John C. Haltiwanger
Alvaro Pinzón

Job creation in Colombia vs the U.S.: "up or out dynamics" meets "the life cycle of plants".
w25545 Daniel P. Gross
The Consequences of Invention Secrecy: Evidence from the USPTO Patent Secrecy Program in World War II
w25539 Cheng Chen
Claudia Steinwender

Import Competition, Heterogeneous Preferences of Managers, and Productivity
w25529 Germán Gutiérrez
Thomas Philippon

Fading Stars
w25515 Maryam Farboodi
Roxana Mihet
Thomas Philippon
Laura Veldkamp

Big Data and Firm Dynamics
w25509 Sari Pekkala Kerr
William R. Kerr

Immigrant Networking and Collaboration: Survey Evidence from CIC
w25505 Ernest Liu
Atif Mian
Amir Sufi

Low Interest Rates, Market Power, and Productivity Growth
w25497 Abhijit Banerjee
Emily Breza
Arun G. Chandrasekhar
Markus Mobius

Naive Learning with Uninformed Agents
w25493 Alexander M. Bell
Raj Chetty
Xavier Jaravel
Neviana Petkova
John Van Reenen

Do Tax Cuts Produce More Einsteins? The Impacts of Financial Incentives vs. Exposure to Innovation on the Supply of Inventors
w25492 Simon Jäger
Benjamin Schoefer
Josef Zweimüller

Marginal Jobs and Job Surplus: A Test of the Efficiency of Separations
w25483 Frank R. Lichtenberg
How Many Life-Years Have New Drugs Saved? A 3-Way Fixed-Effects Analysis of 66 Diseases in 27 Countries, 2000-2013
w25465 Gabriel Ehrlich
John C. Haltiwanger
Ron S. Jarmin
David Johnson
Matthew D. Shapiro

Minding Your Ps and Qs: Going from Micro to Macro in Measuring Prices and Quantities
w25453 Hong Luo
Julie Holland Mortimer

Infringing Use as a Path to Legal Consumption: Evidence from a Field Experiment
w25447 Jonathan I. Dingel
Kyle C. Meng
Solomon M. Hsiang

Spatial Correlation, Trade, and Inequality: Evidence from the Global Climate
w25443 Joshua S. Gans
The Fine Print in Smart Contracts
w25442 Matthew Smith
Danny Yagan
Owen M. Zidar
Eric Zwick

Capitalists in the Twenty-First Century
w25437 Mengjia Ren
Lee G. Branstetter
Brian K. Kovak
Daniel E. Armanios
Jiahai Yuan

Why Has China Overinvested in Coal Power?
w25432 Hong Cheng
Hanbing Fan
Takeo Hoshi
Dezhuang Hu

Do Innovation Subsidies Make Chinese Firms More Innovative? Evidence from the China Employer Employee Survey
w25429 Michela Giorcelli
Nicola Lacetera
Astrid Marinoni

Does Scientific Progress Affect Culture? A Digital Text Analysis

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